GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

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Gross motor skills

  • When your baby is lying on her stomach, she may be able to raise her head and turn it from side to side.
  • Your baby may be able to blink in reaction to bright light and respond to sounds.
  • Your baby may become more active, moving her arms and legs.

Fine motor skills

  • For the first few weeks of his life, your baby’s hands will often be tightly fisted.
  • He will have “newborn reflexes” like grasping fingers and becoming startled by loud noises.

Language skills

  • Your baby will communicate by crying.
  • It is not too early to start reading to your child.

Social skills

  • Some children will often smile at this age. Learn your baby’s temperament. Calm him by holding, rocking, cuddling, and talking.

Nutrition

  • Your baby should be eating 12-24 oz of breast milk or iron-fortified formula a day. Feedings should be 2-4 oz. about every 3-4 hours.
  • Your baby will establish his own “on demand” feeding schedule. He may need to feed a couple of times during the night in the early weeks.
  • Learn and review successful breast-feeding practices or formula preparation techniques. If you are having difficulty breast-feeding, contact our office for advice.
  • Never put your baby to bed with a bottle. This can lead to ear infections, choking and tooth decay later on.

Safety

  • Know the signs of illness and dehydration (such as decreased urination and dry mouth).
  • Avoid exposing your baby to cigarettes, cigars or other forms of smoke (see secondhand smoke).
  • Learn and review the appropriate emergency procedures, for example how to treat choking; contact the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association for lessons in CPR.
  • Never leave your baby alone on changing tables, beds, sofas, or chairs!
  • Always use a car seat for travel. Put the seat in the back seat facing the rear of the car. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Ensure that your crib is safe. Avoid hand-me-down cribs since they may not conform to current safety standards.
  • Always wash your hands before handling your baby to guard against colds and other illnesses.
  • Avoid small objects and toys on which your baby can choke.
  • Place your baby on her back to sleep. This decreases the risk of SIDS.
  • Turn your hot water heater down to less than 120 degrees to protect your baby from scalding.
  • Install smoke detectors in your home. Replace the batteries every six months.
  • Avoid exposing infants to direct sunlight.
  • Childproof your home by removing cigarettes, alcohol, matches, medications, loosely hanging cords, plastic bags, and small or sharp objects.

Gross motor skills

  • When your baby is lying on her stomach, she should be able to lift or turn her head.
  • Your baby will move her arms, legs, and head.

Fine motor skills

  • Your baby’s hands will still be tightly fisted.
  • Your baby may watch people and be able to follow a moving object.

Language skills

  • Your baby will communicate by crying.
  • Over the next month, many babies will begin to coo or make vowel sounds.
  • It is important to read to your child.

Social skills

  • When your baby cries, holding, cuddling or talking can calm him. Learn your baby’s temperament and what is most comforting for him.
  • He might react to noises in the environment by becoming more alert or blinking. He may also cry or pay attention to the noises around him, especially the voices of his caretakers.
  • Many babies will begin to smile in response to your smile.

Nutrition

  • Your baby should be eating 14-32 oz of breast milk or iron-fortified formula a day, usually in 5-10 feedings (4-6 oz. per feeding).
  • Your baby should be gaining weight. An infant generally gains between ½ oz.-1 oz. per day during the first 5 months and then ½ oz per day until 12 months of age.

Safety

  • Know the signs of illness and dehydration (such as decreased urination and dry mouth).
  • Avoid exposing your baby to cigarettes, cigars or other forms of smoke (see secondhand smoke).
  • Learn and review the appropriate emergency procedures, for example how to treat choking. Contact the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association for lessons in CPR.
  • Never leave your baby alone on changing tables, beds, sofas, or chairs!
  • Always use a car seat for travel. Put the seat in the back seat facing the rear of the car. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Keep small objects and toys away from your baby. Your baby can choke.
  • Place your baby on her back to sleep to decrease the risk of SIDS.
  • To protect your baby from scalding turn your hot water heater down to less than 120 degrees.
  • Avoid exposing infants to direct sunlight.
  • Childproof your home by removing cigarettes, alcohol, matches, medications, loosely hanging cords, plastic bags, and small or sharp objects.

Gross motor skills

  • When your baby is lying on her stomach, she may be able to raise her head and chest off the ground halfway up (a 45 degree angle).
  • When you hold your baby while she is sitting, she may have limited head control.
  • Over the next two months, your baby may try to roll over from her stomach to her back.

Fine motor skills

  • Your baby may be able to hold onto a rattle or other object briefly if it is placed in her hand.
  • At this age, her hands will be unfisted most of the time.

Language skills

  • Most babies will coo and make vowel sounds in response to his parents.
  • Some babies will begin to laugh at this age.
  • You may notice your baby paying attention to sounds and voices.
  • It is important to read to your child.

Social skills

  • Your baby will smile responsively and express pleasure with her parents
  • She will start to match voices with faces, and follow a particular person with her eyes.
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Nutrition

  • Your baby should be eating 20-32 oz of breast milk or iron-fortified formula a day, usually in 5-10 feedings (4-6 oz. per feeding).
  • Try to schedule the last feeding of the day between 10-11pm to encourage sleeping through the night.
  • Do not start feeding your baby solid foods until 4 months of age. Your baby still needs nutrition from breast milk or formula.
  • Early introduction of solids may lead to excessive weight gain and increase the risk of food allergies.

Safety

  • Never leave your baby alone on changing tables, beds, sofas or chairs! Your babies may roll over at any moment; always keep one hand on your baby when changing her diapers.
  • Avoid exposing your baby to cigarettes, cigars or other forms of smoke (see secondhand smoke).
  • Always use a car seat for travel. Put the seat in the back seat facing the rear of the car. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Keep small objects and toys away from your baby; he can choke.
  • Place your baby on her back to sleep to decrease the risk of SIDS.
  • To protect your baby from scalding turn your hot water heater down to less than 120 degrees.
  • Avoid exposing infants to direct sunlight.
  • Childproof your home by removing cigarettes, alcohol, matches/lighters, medications, plants, loosely hanging cords, plastic bags, and small or sharp objects.
  • Do not use walkers. Your child will not learn to walk faster. Instead, your baby may be injured, leaving your area of supervision and possibly falling down stairs or crashing into furniture or walls.

Gross motor skills

  • At this age, you should begin to see your baby push up on his forearms or hands and hold his head up when lying on his belly.
  • Most babies are able to roll over from front to back at this age.
  • Your baby should be able to control his head movements well.
  • He should be able to sit with support.

Fine motor skills

  • Your baby’s hands will remain unfisted and open most of the time.
  • Many babies are able to bat or grasp at objects or hold a rattle that has been placed in their hands.

Language skills

  • You should hear your baby babble, squeal, and coo vowel sounds.
  • Over the next two months, your child may start to imitate sounds that you make.
  • He will be silent and listen to whoever is talking to him.
  • Your baby may be quiet and listen to music.
  • It is important to read to your child.

Social skills

  • Your baby can initiate social contact.
  • She will express a variety of emotions, including happiness, sadness, pleasure, and joy. Your baby will smile, laugh, and squeal to reveal how she is feeling.
  • Your baby will be able to discern her parent’s voice and touch.
  • She will recognize and become active at the sight of food.

Nutrition

  • Your baby should be eating 24-32 oz. of breast milk or iron-fortified formula a day, usually in 4-7 feedings (6-8 oz. per feeding).
  • If you choose to begin feeding your baby solid food, start by mixing small amounts of rice cereal with formula, or breast milk and feed her with a spoon. Most babies don’t do well with spoons when they are this young, so don’t expect your baby to eat very much. Try again a few weeks later.
  • Do not give your baby honey until she is at least one year of age. This will reduce the risk of an illness called infantile botulism that can lead to paralysis in infants.
  • Replace nighttime feedings with comforting words and touching to encourage good sleeping habits.

Safety

  • Never leave your baby alone on changing tables, beds, sofas or chairs! She is more active now and is able to roll over. When changing diapers, always keep one hand on your baby.
  • Avoid exposing your baby to cigarettes, cigars or other forms of smoke (see secondhand smoke).
  • Always use a car seat for travel. Put the seat in the back seat facing the rear of the car. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Keep small objects and toys away from your baby, she can choke. Babies put everything in their mouth! Consider learning CPR and other life-saving techniques.
  • Place your baby on her back to sleep to decrease the risk of SIDS
  • To protect your baby from scalding turn your hot water heater down to less than 120 degrees.
  • Avoid exposing infants to direct sun-light.
  • Childproof your home by removing cigarettes, alcohol, matches, medications, plants, loosely hanging cords, plastic bags, and small or sharp objects.
  • Do not use walkers. Your child will not learn to walk faster. Instead, your baby may be injured, leaving your area of supervision and possibly falling down stairs or crashing into furniture or walls.
  • Consider using a playpen for your baby. It is a special place in your house in which your baby can safely play.

Gross motor skills

  • You will begin to see your child rolling over forward and backwards.
  • Many children are able to sit with support.

Fine motor skills

  • Watch for your child to reach out and try to grasp small objects in her hands.
  • Some children will be able to rake or scoop an object into the palm of their hand.
  • Your child may be able to grasp and transfer large objects (like blocks or a rattle) from hand to hand.
  • Be aware that your child will put objects in her mouth to explore them.

Language skills

  • Over the next three months your child should start making all sorts of sounds as if she is babbling.
  • It is important to read to your child. This is a great way to encourage language development.

Social skills

  • Over the next couple of months your child may begin to experience separation anxiety and stranger anxiety, an intense fear of leaving a parent or meeting strangers. This is a completely normal stage in his social development.
  • Your child may develop a preference for her primary care giver.
  • Your baby will sense when you are happy or angry and can react accordingly.
  • Your baby may react to sounds by turning or expressing her own emotions.

Nutrition

  • Over the next three months your child may start to teethe and erupt teeth.
  • Your baby should still be eating 24-32 oz. of breast milk or formula a day, usually in 4-6 feedings (6-8 oz. per feeding).
  • Your baby can be started on iron-fortified cereals, such as rice cereal, mixed with formula or breast milk. Gradually increase to 3 – 5 tablespoons per day.
  • Pureed or mashed fruits and vegetables may be introduced to your baby at this time; one may also add finely ground meat.
  • Introduce each food item one at a time about 7 days in between food items. This allows you to see if your baby does not tolerate a particular food or is allergic to any foods. If your baby develops a rash, diarrhea, vomiting or has difficulty breathing, this may indicate a food allergy or intolerance.
  • Limit your baby to 4 oz of fruit juice per day. Although it tastes sweet, it contains little nutritional value. It can also lead to too little or too much weight gain. It should always be given from a cup, or a bottle.
  • Cow’s milk should not be given until after one year of age. At 6 months, it will not provide the right nutrients for your baby and may be difficult for your baby to digest.
  • Do not give your baby honey until she is at least one year of age. This will reduce the risk of an illness called infantile botulism which occasionally can cause paralysis in infants but not in older children.

Safety

  • Keep up the childproofing. Since your child can roll over, always be sure to keep one hand on your child while he is on beds or other high surfaces. Make sure there are no power cords or other hanging objects that your child can grab.
  • Avoid exposing your baby to cigarettes, cigars or other forms of smoke (see secondhand smoke).
  • Always use a car seat for travel. Put it in the back seat of the car with the seat facing backwards until one year of age no matter how much your child weighs. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Do not use walkers. Your child will not learn to walk faster. Instead, your baby may be injured, leaving your area of supervision and possibly falling down stairs or crashing into furniture or walls.
  • Use playpens. You will be able to better monitor the activities of your child while she plays.
  • Buy age-appropriate toys for your child. Because your baby may be exploring objects with her mouth, check for small or loose parts that she could choke on.
  • Remove mobiles, crib gyms, or other hanging objects from your baby’s playpen at this age.
  • Beware of loose cords (like blinds) because your baby may accidentally strangle herself with them.
  • Never leave your baby alone on changing tables, beds, sofas or chairs!
  • Use appropriate belts or restraints with high chairs to avoid falls.
  • Your child should never be in the bathtub alone.
  • Avoid exposing your baby to too much sun by dressing your child in protective clothing like floppy hats. You can begin using sunscreens.
  • Fireproof your home.
  • To prevent tooth decay and ear infections, do not put your baby to bed with a bottle.

Gross motor skills

  • Your baby should be able to sit without assistance.
  • She may pull herself up to a standing position.
  • Your child should be able to support his own weight while sitting or standing.
  • Your baby will start to creep and crawl on hands and knees, so make sure your house is childproofed for a more active baby! As your baby’s gross motor skills increase, she may throw or drop objects.
  • Your baby may be able to push a stroller with your assistance or “walk” with both her hands held by and adult.
  • Over the next three months your child may start to walk along the edge of a table, holding on as he takes each step
Mh2>Fine motor skills
  • Your baby will gain better use of her hands at this age. Look for her to hold objects in her thumb and forefinger.
  • Your baby will use his finger to poke at objects.
  • Most children will be able to scoop an object into the palm of their hand.
  • Your child may start banging two blocks together in his hands.

Language skills

  • Many children will be able to call their mother and father by the names “mama” and “dada.”
  • Your baby should become alert in response to the calling of his name.
  • He may understand a few words and be able to associate them with meanings.
  • Most babies will begin to babble consonant sounds (p, g, n, l, s, and r).
  • It is important to read to your child.

Social skills

  • Your baby still may be exhibiting signs of stranger or separation anxiety.
  • Look for some forms of social interaction like waving “bye-bye” or playing “peek-a-boo.”
  • Realize that while your baby is starting to express independent behavior, he does not yet know the difference between right and wrong.
  • Form healthy habits and routines for meals and bedtime.

Nutrition

  • Your baby should be eating 24-32 oz of breast milk or formula a day, usually in 3-4 feedings (6-8 oz per feeding).
  • Over the next three to six months your child may be able to drink from a cup.
  • Encourage self feeding by providing your baby with finger foods such as cereals, toast, crackers, or peeled fruit pieces.
  • Continue to feed your baby cooked, mashed vegetables (7 – 8 tbsp per day), soft fruits (7-8 tbsp per day), and some protein, such as ground or finely chopped chicken and lean meats or rice and beans (3-4 tbsp per day or ½ oz of protein per day).
  • Cow’s milk should not be given until after one year of age. It does not provide the right nutrients for a child less than 1 year of age
  • Do not give your child honey until she is at least one year of age. This will reduce the risk of an illness called infantile botulism that can cause paralysis in infants, but not in older children.
  • Help your baby avoid choking on foods! Do not feed your baby raw vegetables, peanuts, popcorn, raisins, hard candy, hot dogs or peanut butter. Your baby should always be seated while eating.
  • Do not be alarmed if your baby’s appetite starts to decrease. As her rate of growth starts to decrease, it is normal for her to eat less. Don’t force your child to eat. Provide her small amounts of different foods and continue to encourage self-feeding.
  • Brush your child’s teeth with a soft cloth or a very soft toothbrush. Do not use toothpaste, as most of it will be swallowed which can cause stomach upset or excess fluoride exposure.

Safety

  • Make sure your baby cannot get into poisons and medications.
  • Avoid exposing your baby to secondhand smoke.
  • Always use a car seat for travel. Put it in the back seat of the car with the seat facing backwards until one year of age no matter how much your child weighs. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Do not use walkers. Your child will not learn to walk faster. Instead, your baby may be injured, leaving your area of supervision and possibly falling down stairs or crashing into furniture or walls.
  • Test the water temperature of your baby’s bath. It should be less than 100-110 degrees to avoid scalding. Keep hot liquids away from your child.
  • Avoid too much sun by using protective clothing like floppy hats and sunscreen.
  • Your home should be adequately childproofed with stair gates, cabinet latches, and window guards. Cover electrical sockets and remove cords and plants.
  • To prevent tooth decay and ear infections, do not put your baby to bed with a bottle.

Gross motor skills

  • Your child may hold on to the edge of a table as he takes each step.
  • He may be able to stand without any assistance at this age.
  • Your child may be able to walk with one hand held. He may also take a few steps on his own, or walk independently.
  • Most children will learn how to walk well over the next three months.

Fine motor skills

  • He may be able to make a small tower with blocks or release a cube into a box.
  • Over the next three months your child may be able to hold a crayon and make marks with it.
  • Your child may be able to drink from a cup held for him or independently. He may be able to feed himself.

Language skills

  • At this age your child will respond to the word “no.”
  • You may hear your child say one or two words of meaning such as a name for an older brother or sister or a word for objects.
  • To communicate or express a desired goal, your child will use pointing and speak jargon to get the object.
  • Your child will be able to follow commands with a simple gesture.
  • It is important to read to your child. This is a great way to encourage language development.

Social skills

  • Do not be alarmed if your child is still showing separation anxiety.
  • At this age, your baby may begin formation of relationships with people other than his primary care giver.
  • Your child may cooperate with dressing by adjusting his posture or removing his socks or hat.
  • Sing songs, talk, read, and play games with your child to increase his social interaction. Children at this age are eager to learn and play.
  • Most one year olds will not play “with” other children. Instead they may prefer to play by themselves or in the company of others.
  • Consider giving your baby a comfort toy such as a stuffed animal or blanket.

Nutrition

  • Your baby should still be eating 24-32 oz of breast milk or whole milk a day, usually in 3-4 feedings (5-8 oz per feeding).
  • Work towards the goal of getting your baby off the bottle by 15-18 months of age.
  • Your child should be eating three meals a day plus 2-3 snacks.
  • By 10-12 months of age, your child should be introduced to table foods. Try cereals, whole wheat bread, mashed potatoes, rice, noodles, cooked vegetable pieces, peeled fruit wedges, cooked beans and small tender pieces of chicken and lean meat. Make sure foods are chopped up in small pieces.
  • Your child should be feeding himself. Be prepared for a mess!
  • Allow experimentation with foods.
  • Eat meals as a family.
  • As your baby’s rate of growth decreases, his appetite will lessen. Do not become alarmed if your child does not eat large amounts of food. Provide him with a variety of healthy foods. Limit the amount of fruit juice you give him to only 4-6 oz per day.

Safety>

  • Always use a car seat for travel. You may turn the car seat around facing the front of the car if your child is heavier than 20 pounds or has appropriate head, neck, and trunk support. Your child should remain in the back seat; it is the safest place for the child. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Make sure your home is adequately childproofed for a walking infant.
  • Seat your child in a high chair for eating. Avoid choking accidents!
  • To prevent tooth decay and ear infections, do not put your baby to bed with a bottle.
  • Avoid clothing with drawstrings because it can get caught on equipment and cause choking.
  • Closely supervise your child while he is outside, especially near dogs, lawnmowers, driveways, and streets.
  • Practice water safety by never leaving your child alone in the bathtub, near the pool or pail of water, or at the beach.
  • Always use sunscreen for children, and limit your child’s exposure to the sun during peak hours (10 am and 4 pm) by wearing protective clothing such as floppy hats.

Gross motor skills

  • Most children will be able to walk well and crawl up stairs.
  • Your child may appear to run with stiff legs.
  • Your child will start to climb on furniture.
  • Your baby may be able to walk backwards, stoop, and stand back up again.
  • Your child may be able to throw a ball overhand.

Fine motor skills

  • At this age, your child may be able to stack two or three cubes.
  • Your child may be able to scribble with a crayon.
  • Your baby should already be using his fingers and a drinking cup to self-feed.
  • Some children will be able to use a spoon at this age, usually getting about half of the food successfully into their mouths.
  • Over the next three months, your child might be able to remove shirts or blouses when changing clothes.

Language skills

  • Most children will know three to six words and communicate their wants by pointing or grunting.
  • Your child should be able to understand simple commands and follow directions.
  • Your child may learn how and when to say “no.”
  • It is important to read to your child.

Social skills

  • Your child will start to show love and affection with you and other family members by hugging or “kissing” by touching lips to skin.
  • Expect your child to express emotions like assertiveness, empathy, sharing, and self-comfort.
  • Your child should be able to follow your commands without gestures.
  • Your child may be able to point to a body part or favorite toy when asked.
  • Expect power struggles. Enforce your rules calmly but firmly.
  • Read and tell stories to your child. Encourage music and singing

Nutrition

  • Keep in mind that your baby’s food intake should decrease as his rate of growth slows.
  • Your baby should be eating small pieces of table food and feeding himself.
  • Make sure your child is seated in a high chair when your baby is eating to avoid choking accidents.
  • Do not feed your child any foods on which he could choke such as nuts, popcorn, grapes, candy, or gum.

Safety

  • Continue to use a car seat in the back seat of the car for travel. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Re-examine your home for new dangers to your child. Keep in mind that when your child begins to climb furniture, he will be able to reach hot cooking pots, heavy items, and small objects. Install window guards if you do not have them by this age. Bookcases can topple on top of your child if he tries to climb on the shelves. Consider nailing the top of the bookshelf into the wall.
  • Supervise your child closely, especially around any water. Never leave your child unattended near bathtubs, pools, water pails, or other bodies of water.
  • Always remove common things around your house that may pose choking or suffocation risk to your exploratory toddler such as plastic bags. Latex balloons should not be in the home.
  • Avoid clothing with drawstrings because they can get caught on equipment and cause choking.
  • Closely supervise your child while he is outside, especially near dogs, lawnmowers, driveways, and streets.
  • Check smoke detectors and remove any fire hazards from your home.
  • Always use sunscreen for children, and limit your baby’s exposure to the sun during peak hours (10 am to 4 pm) by wearing protective clothing and floppy hats.

Gross motor skills

  • Many children will be able to push or pull large objects and throw or kick a ball while standing.
  • Your child may decide to seat herself in a small chair.

Fine motor skills

  • Some children will be able to build a tower of 4 cubes.
  • Encourage your child to use a spoon and cup.
  • Your child may be able to name and point to some body parts.

Language skills

  • Your child’s vocabulary will soon expand to 15-20 words. Over the next six months she may start to use two-word phrases like “stop it.”
  • Your child will look at pictures and over the next six months will be able to name objects. Your child will show an interest in books.
  • It is important to read to your child.

Social skills

  • Your child will be able to get an object from another room on request.
  • Your child will learn to seek help from a parent or other caregiver.
  • Your child will continue to show affection by hugging and kissing.
  • She should be able to follow simple directions.
  • Encourage your child to express herself and make choices.
  • Set a small number of rules and enforce them. Keep discipline brief.
  • Do not encourage biting, hitting, or any other type of aggression.
  • Do not strike your child because it demonstrates that aggressive or hitting behavior is acceptable.
  • Stern looks and quiet but firm voices as well as distractions are good methods of discipline at this age. Raising your voice is a signal to the child that they have gotten an active response from you.
  • Don't forget that positive comments and quality time set a good example for children and can be the most effective form of discipline.

Nutrition

  • Provide a variety of foods for your child including breads and cereals, whole milk, protein rich foods (meat, poultry, legumes, eggs), fruits and vegetables. Limit the amount of sugar your child eats.
  • Provide 3 meals and 2-3 snacks per day, each about 2-3 hours apart.
  • Keep meals and snacks to about 20-30 minutes.
  • Limit your child to 4 oz. of fruit juice per day. Although it tastes sweet, it contains little nutritional value.
  • Avoid battles over food. Encourage your child to try her food by giving her several small portions and then more of what she likes. Never force her to finish everything presented to her.
  • It is normal for toddler’s to prefer the same food(s) for weeks or to have erratic appetites.
  • Only feed your child when she is seated in a high chair. Avoid foods that can cause your child to choke, such as nuts, popcorn, whole grapes, candy, raw vegetables or gum.
  • Monitor your child’s diet weekly instead of daily. The balance of the diet over a week is more useful in judging your child’s eating than on a day-to-day basis.
  • Teach your child how to brush his teeth, by using a small, soft-bristled toothbrush. Do not use toothpaste at this age. Most of it will be swallowed and may cause stomach upset or excessive fluoride intake.

Safety

  • Continue to use a car seat in the back seat of the car for travel. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Constantly be aware of window, water, and fire safety to protect your child against falls, burns, choking injuries, and accidental poisonings
  • To prevent tooth decay and ear infections, do not put your baby to bed with a bottle.
  • Avoid clothing with drawstrings because they can get caught on equipment and cause choking.
  • Closely supervise your child while he is outside, especially near dogs, lawnmowers, driveways, and streets.
  • Supervise your child closely, especially around any water. Never leave your child unattended near bathtubs, pools, water pails, or other bodies of water.
  • Always use sunscreen for children, and limit your child’s exposure to the sun during peak hours (10 am – 4 pm) by wearing protective clothing and floppy hats.

Gross motor skills

You should expect to see your child doing the following physical activities:

  • Walk up and down the stairs by holding onto the handrail
  • Squat when playing
  • Jump in place
  • Kick a ball
  • Throw a ball overhand
  • Run well
  • Open doors
  • Climb onto furniture

Fine motor skills

  • Your child may be able to thread a shoelace through a safety pin.
  • She will be able to use a crayon for scribbling, making vertical and circular strokes.
  • Your child will be able to stack many blocks or cubes.
  • Your child should be able to handle a spoon well and drink from a cup.
  • Your child may show interest in dressing, helping you remove or put on clothes, unzipping zippers, or putting on shoes.

Language skills

  • Your child should have a growing vocabulary of 30-50 words and the grammar skills to say two word sentences such as “I go” or “Doggie play.”
  • Your child may be able to retell immediate experiences.
  • She will enjoy listening to stories with pictures.
  • Your child will be able to understand two-step commands.

Social skills

  • Children at this age enjoy playing in the company of others, but they usually will not play with each other. Do not expect your two year old to share his toys! Instead, encourage trading toys among children.
  • You will notice emerging independence in your child. Phrases like “Me do that” are common.
  • Most children will not mind separation from primary care givers and will simply continue their play or current activity. Your toddler’s emotions will be influenced by the reactions of others around him.
  • He will express emotions like shame, contempt, and guilt and be able to verbalize some feelings with words.
  • Your child may imitate your social behavior as she becomes aware of the feelings and actions of others.
  • Set rules and reinforce limits.
  • Limit the amount of TV your child watches.
  • Sing and read interactively with your child.
  • Develop a strategy for dealing with nightmares and other terrors. Help your child with his fears.

Nutrition

  • Continue to offer healthy food choices during meals and snack times.
  • Never force your child to eat anything. Don’t let meal time turn into a battle.
  • Monitor your child’s diet weekly instead of daily. The balance of the diet over a week is more useful in judging food intake than on a day-to-day basis.
  • Teach your child how to brush his teeth if you are confident he won’t swallow the toothpaste. First dental visit is recommended between 1-3 years of age.

Safety

  • Always use a toddler car seat for travel. Put it in the back seat. Do not allow your child to sit in the front seat. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Be careful when playing at the playground. Always watch your child around playground equipment.
  • Always use sunscreen for children, and limit your child’s exposure to the sun during peak hours by wearing protective clothing and floppy hats.
  • Avoid clothing with drawstrings because they can get caught on equipment and cause choking.
  • Make sure your house is adequately childproofed for an active toddler!
  • Review first aid and emergency procedures such as CPR or treatment for choking.
  • Supervise your toddler closely.
  • Check your smoke detectors. Maintain a smoke-free environment to decrease the risk of your child developing asthma or other breathing problems.

Gross Motor skills

  • As your child grows, expect him to increase his physical activity. He will be able to run around obstacles, jump, kick a ball, catch a ball, ride a tricycle, throw a ball, push and pull toys and play on playground equipment with assistance.

Fine motor skills

  • Over the next year, your child will be able to copy circles and imitate simple shapes or a person.
  • He may use clay to roll and form shapes.
  • Your child will be able to build a tall tower of 9-12 blocks.
  • You will probably see your child button and unbutton large buttons, or fasten snaps.

Language skills

  • By this age your child should recognize his name, age, and/or sex.
  • His vocabulary will have grown to over 1000 words, including some abstract words and concepts. He may be able to construct 4 to 5 word sentences.
  • Your child will begin to understand time concepts such as “Tomorrow we are going to the store.” He will be able to tell you stories and past experiences.
  • He will be able to understand and follow a series of 2 to 4 related directions.
  • Your child will understand “Let’s pretend.”
  • He will use pronouns, plurals, prepositions, and past tense and refer to himself.
  • Your child will be able to answer questions about himself and his day-to-day activities.
  • It is important to read to your child.

Social skills

  • Your child will be interested in playing and interacting with other children. He will understand how to share and take turns (although you may need to encourage him!).
  • Your three year old will express more interest in his personal appearance. He may choose his own clothes and brush his hair. Your child should be able to eat independently, using utensils and cups.
  • You should encourage your child to wash his hands and use facial tissues. Teach him the proper procedure for brushing his teeth and practicing good oral health.
  • Your child should be able to dress himself and put on shoes and socks.
  • Encourage your child to help you with chores around the house like sweeping or cleaning his room.
  • Limit the amount of TV your child watches. Supervise television viewing.
  • Most children are still working on becoming toilet trained. Don’t be frustrated if things aren’t perfect yet. Most children will learn to control the toilet functions during the day first, and nighttime control comes later.

Nutrition

  • Continue to offer healthy food choices during meals and snack times.
  • Eat your meals as a family.
  • Never force your child to eat anything. Don’t let meal time turn into a battle.
  • Monitor your child’s diet weekly instead of daily. The balance of the diet over a week is more useful in judging food intake than on a day-to-day basis.

Safety

  • Always use a toddler car seat or booster seat for travel. Put it in the back seat. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky. Do not allow your child to sit in the front seat if an airbag is present.
  • Be careful when playing at the playground. Always watch your child around playground equipment.
  • Avoid clothing with drawstrings because they can get caught on equipment and cause choking.
  • Always use sunscreen for children, and limit your child’s exposure to the sun during peak hours (10 am to 4pm) by wearing protective clothing and floppy hats.
  • Make sure your house is adequately childproofed for an active toddler!
  • Review first aid and emergency procedures such as CPR or treatment for choking
  • Supervise your toddler closely.
  • Check your smoke detectors. Maintain a smoke-free environment to decrease the risk of your child developing asthma or other breathing problems.

Gross motor skills

  • The average four year old is very good at jumping, hopping, walking backwards, walking up stairs (using alternating feet), galloping, and doing somersaults.
  • She may be able to walk the full length of a balance beam and catch a ball.

Fine motor skills

  • You may begin to see your child take more of an interest in drawing and writing some letters like H and V.
  • Most children will be able to copy circles and crosses.
  • Your child may be able to button small- to medium-sized buttons.
  • She may be able to produce a recognizable picture and name or describe the drawing.
  • Express approval if your child is able to tie her shoelaces, hang up her coat, and zipper her coat.

Language skills

  • Your child should know her first and last names.
  • Your child will understand comparative words like big, bigger, and biggest.
  • She will understand more abstract words and will be able to join short phrases into longer and more complex sentences.
  • Your child will enjoy listening to stories, but she may not understand the plot or confuse the facts.
  • Expect your child to understand more complex questions and directions.
  • Teach your child to identify the common opposites (like hot and cold) through example.
  • Engage your child in singing and music!
  • Your child may be very good at counting objects, perhaps up to 5 or 10.

Social skills

  • You will notice your toddler’s attention span is lengthening!
  • She will start to understand the difference between fantasy and reality. Encourage her to play dress-up.
  • Your child will show an interest in the differences between girls and boys. Expect normal curiosity and answer questions. Always use the correct terms to avoid confusion later on
  • Group interaction will become more enjoyable for your toddler. She will enjoy playing with other children.
  • Most children will to be able to use the bathroom during the day, but don’t be discouraged if nighttime problems continue. Nighttime control often is not complete until six years of age or older.
  • Your toddler will want to take an active role in dressing herself.
  • Teach your child to clean up after herself and put her toys away in the proper place. This is an important lesson of responsibility that your child is ready to learn.
  • Encourage your child to learn the difference between assertiveness and aggressiveness.
  • Praise your child when she exhibits good behavior and practices good habits. Do not reinforce negative behaviors with attention.
  • Always reinforce your limits and use time-outs as discipline
  • Limit the amount of TV your child watches. Supervise television viewing.

Nutrition

  • Continue to offer healthy food choices during meals and snack times.
  • Eat your meals as a family.
  • Never force your child to eat. Don’t let meal time turn into a battle.
  • Monitor your child’s diet weekly instead of daily. The balance of the diet over a week is more useful in judging food intake than on a day-to-day basis.

Safety

  • Always use a toddler car seat for travel. Put it in the back seat. Do not allow your child to sit in the front seat if an airbag is present. If your child weighs more than 40 pounds, you can use a booster seat designed for use in cars. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Be careful when playing at the playground. Always watch your child around playground equipment.
  • Avoid clothing with drawstrings because they can get caught on equipment and cause choking.
  • Always use sunscreen for children, and limit your child’s exposure to the sun during peak hours (10 am to 4 pm) by wearing protective clothing and floppy hats.
  • Make sure your house is adequately childproofed for an active toddler!
  • Review first aid and emergency procedures such as CPR or treatment for choking.
  • Supervise your toddler closely.
  • Check your smoke detectors. Maintain a smoke-free environment to decrease the risk of your child developing asthma or other breathing problems.

Gross motor skills

  • By five years of age, most children are able to perform all varieties of physical activity.
  • Your child will perfect his ability to skip, hop and balance on one foot.

Fine motor skills

  • Your child should be able to dress himself without help.
  • He may able to draw a square or circle and print most letters of the alphabet
  • Many children are able to draw a person with head, body, arms, and legs.

Language skills

  • Your child’s speech should be recognizable by everyone, including you and strangers.
  • He should be able to repeat longer sentences and ask the meaning of new words.

Social skills

  • Encourage your child to express his feelings and explore new emotions. This will become more important as he starts to recognize and understand the feelings of others.
  • Serve as a moral and ethical role model for your child. Always practice good behavior and habits.
  • Listen and show respect for your child’s activities. Show an interest in things that intrigue your child.
  • Show affection to your child.
  • Help your child to resolve conflicts and handle anger with siblings or other children.
  • Reinforce limits, using time-outs as discipline.
  • Teach your child to obey rules and the difference between right and wrong. It is important for your child to learn to respect authority.
  • Play with your child!
  • Limit the amount of TV your child watches and supervise television viewing.
  • Assign your child chores around the house. Encourage responsibility in your child

Nutrition

  • Continue to offer healthy food choices during meals and snack times.
  • Eat your meals as a family.
  • Never force your child to eat. Don’t let meal time turn into a battle.
  • Monitor your child’s diet weekly instead of daily. The balance of the diet over a week is more useful in judging your child’s eating than on a day-to-day basis.

Safety

  • Always use a correctly sized car seat for travel. Put it in the back seat. Do not allow your child to sit in the front seat. If your child weighs more than 40 pounds, you can use a booster seat designed for use in cars. Review the manufacturer instructions since installation can be tricky.
  • Be careful when playing at the playground. Always watch your child around playground equipment.
  • Avoid clothing with drawstrings because they can get caught on equipment and cause choking.
  • Always use sunscreen for children, and limit your child’s exposure to the sun during peak hours by wearing protective clothing and floppy hats.
  • Make sure your house is adequately childproofed for an active child!
  • Review first aid and emergency procedures such as CPR or treatment for choking
  • Check your smoke detectors. Maintain a smoke-free environment to decrease the risk of your child developing asthma or other breathing problems.
  • Discuss pedestrian, playground, stranger, and bicycle safety with your child. He is old enough to learn the dangers of certain activities and behavior.
  • Educate your child about gun safety and avoidance.

1120 S. MAIN STREET, SUITE 100, GRAPEVINE, TEXAS 76051 - (817) 416-5554 , Fax: 817-416-5556

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